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Category: Ingredients

Cocoa and chocolate

Cocoa and chocolate

Cocoa is obtained from the fruits of the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao). This tree is native to Central and South America but is now cultivated in Africa and parts of South Asia. In fact, Africa is the world’s leading cocoa producer. The final characteristics of cocoa-derived products depend on the variety used and its origin. Although more aromatic varieties exist, the majority of the world’s cocoa comes from the Forastero variety. However, edaphoclimatic conditions also significantly influence cocoa, leading to…

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Dairy Products II

Dairy Products II

After a first entry where we discussed the possibility of incorporating some types of milk or their components into baked goods, now we will talk about other dairy products. Cream and Butter Dairy fats often carry a negative nutritional image due to high levels of saturated fatty acids and the presence of cholesterol, in addition to being excluded from vegan diets. Therefore, they are increasingly replaced by vegetable fats or oils. Another reason for their substitution is their higher cost…

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Dairy Products I

Dairy Products I

Dairy products have been a common ingredient in many bakery, pastry, and biscuit products. Recently, some of these products have come under scrutiny, and some companies prefer to eliminate them from their formulations. In this entry, we will explore their advantages and disadvantages. Milk In general, when we talk about milk, we refer to cow’s milk, although there are other types of milk that can be used in bakery and pastry. Milk is mainly composed of proteins, fat, and lactose,…

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Egg Products

Egg Products

Following the previous entry where we discussed general aspects of eggs and their functionality in baked product manufacturing, in this new entry, we will delve into the various egg products available in the market. Fresh Eggs Fresh eggs, or shell eggs, are commonly used in households. As previously explained, using this type of egg can pose significant bacteriological problems. For this reason, Spanish legislation prohibits its use unless the egg is subjected to temperatures exceeding 75ºC. In other countries, it…

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Eggs

Eggs

Eggs are among the most commonly used ingredients in some bakery preparations, and their functionality can be challenging to replace in certain cases. In this entry, we will analyse their composition, functionality, and the various forms in which these products can be found in the market. Morphology and Composition We are all familiar with eggs, and we can clearly distinguish three parts. Firstly, there is an outer shell that envelops and protects them. This shell must be removed and is…

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Oils and Fats: Applications

Oils and Fats: Applications

This entry is a continuation of the first one dedicated to oils and fats, where we discussed basic aspects of these ingredients. In this entry, we will provide some indications about the advantages (and disadvantages) of using oils or fats in baking and pastry, and what type might be more suitable for each application. It is essential to consider that cultural aspects, traditions, and availability also influence the use of fats and oils. In some countries, the use of animal…

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Oils and Fats: Basics

Oils and Fats: Basics

Today, we will delve into the realm of oils and fats, exploring their roles in various baking, pastry, and cookie preparations, and discussing key factors to consider when choosing them. Given the complexity of the subject, we will address it through multiple entries. This first entry will cover more general topics. Oils or Fats Let’s begin by clarifying the terminology commonly used. In general, we refer to fats in a liquid state at room temperature, such as olive, sunflower, soy,…

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Sugars in Baking

Sugars in Baking

Types of Sugars Sugar is one of the ingredients in many baking products, but it can also occur naturally in some of the used ingredients. The term “sugar” encompasses many chemical compounds. The sugar commonly used in households is sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose. If we break the bond that connects both compounds in sucrose, we obtain what is called inverted sugar, which is nothing more than a combination of glucose and fructose. Another sugar typically present in…

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Cakes. Ingredients

Cakes. Ingredients

While the characteristics of various ingredients have been discussed in previous entries, this section serves as a reminder of their functions in cake making. It’s essential to note that each ingredient serves a specific function, and formulations are calculated for the inclusion of specific ingredients. Therefore, even a slight variation in ingredient quantities or types, such as replacing sucrose with glucose syrup, may necessitate reformulation by adjusting ingredient quantities. Flour The blog has already dedicated a specific entry to the…

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Yeast

Yeast

Yeast is the microorganism that, when incorporated into dough, generates carbon dioxide (CO2), allowing the dough to increase in volume. To achieve this, yeast requires sugars, which it transforms into CO2 and ethanol. While ethanol evaporates during baking, CO2 remains trapped in the dough, giving it a spongy texture, provided that the dough has the ability to retain this gas, which, in most cases, depends on the gluten network. The yeast used in baking belongs to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genus….

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